19号就要考试了。今天才开始看awa，发现虽然大概能看懂七宗罪，但是真的不知道怎么用。不知道either-or choice 和gratuitous assumption又什么区别。头大。所以翻了一下以前的GRE资料，发现了一个类似七宗罪的解释版。因为资料是1年前的，所以不记得是从哪里download的了。好像是太傻或寄托上吧。先谢谢原作者了。
In this argument, the arguer concludes/ suggests/ makes a suggestion/ makes a conclusion that…To justify this conclusion/ suggestion/ argument, the arguer points out/ cites that…The arguer also points out/ cites that…Although the argument/ conclusion/ suggestion seems plausible, after closely scruinizing this argument, I find that this argument is logically flawed in several aspects, which render it unconvincing as it stands.
In conclusion, despite that fact that this argument seems appealing, it has several logical flaws, and is therefore unpersuasive as it stands. To bolster his or her argument, the arguer must provide more information which can show that…To better support this argument, the arguer should also provide…To better evaluate this argument, I would also need to know that…
A threshold problem with this argument involves a survey/ study/ research itself. The statistical reliability of the survey/study/research/ is really dubious可疑 for the reason that the speaker provide no evidence which can show that the number of the respondents( 这里建议替换成调查研究中的群体。比如针对谁提问就写谁) is statistically significant or that the respondents were representative of the overall group of people(接所有群体，比如北京市所有的一类群体) in general. Common sense tells us that the smaller the size of the sample, the greater the possiblity for biased results, the less reliable the result of the survey and the less reliable any general conclusions drawn from the survey. That is to say, (你要开始攻击了) The number of participants, 100(文中数据), might be just an insufficiently small sample on which cannot be justifiably relied to draw any reliable conclusions about... Also, the sample might be not necessarily representative of (所有群体). Lacking the information about the randomness and the size of the survey sample, the speaker cannot convince me to believe in the result of the survey—let alone draw any broader recommendation based on the survey/study/research/ result.
用于结尾总结的句型: To better support this argument, the arguer should provide more information to show that the respondents of the survey are statistically significant in number and can represent the overall ...
The arguer unfairly assumes that the fact that A is due to B. However, there is no sufficient evidence which can substantiate/confirm this assumption. The speaker overlooks other factors that might also lead to the fact that (接原题的结论。比如，盈利，水平上升，总之就是作者希望的那样). As a matter of fact, the fact that A might be explained by a variety of factors. So lacking evidence to confirm this assumption, it is entirely possible that…It is equalily possible that…Moreover, perhaps that…(一般情况下我推荐3种其他的可能性) In short, without considering and ruling out all of these and other possibilities, the credibility of the arguer’s conclusion is really open to doubt for the reason that each of the possibilities, if true, would serve to undermine the arguer’s conclusion./ the arguer cannot justifiably concludes that…/ I remain unconvinced that…
结尾中的总结句: The author must consider and eliminate other possible reasons that may also lead to this result.
5. 无根据假设(无据攻击法)—任何题目通杀(例: 牛奶农庄数量上升一定导致牛奶价格下降)
Moreover, the argument rests on a unconvincing assumption that A leads to B for the reason that there is no evidence given to substantiate the claim that A contributes to B. (除了调查，原题一定会给一个其他的逻辑A－B这样的非充分必要条件，本段的攻击就是针对其展开) Even if it is true that…the mere fact that(指向原题的条件) does not necessarily indicate that(原题结论). It is entirely possible that(注意，本次可能性列举是就原题条件列举，上段的列举是就结论列举，完全不同，一个是反证，一个是归谬。请大家注意)..Or perhaps….（这段列举我不建议超过2个，因为太多的列举会显得逻辑性不强。2个就够了）
Thus, given these possible scenarios, the fact(原题的条件) prove nothing about (原题结论)
The argument is unconvincing also because it is based on a false analogy. Failing to take into account the possible differernces between A and B, the arguer makes a hasty analogy. It is entirely possible that A and B are not similar enough to justify this analogical deduction.(上面的句子是所有错误类比的题目通杀的句子, 只要有错误类比, 那么先把这几句打上) Perhaps…(两者之间可能差异一)Or perhaps…(两者之间可能差异二). Therefore, without providing sufficient information showing that most or even all of the conditions in A and B is similar or the same, the author cannot convince me that the method which is efficient in A can also be efficient in B as well. (结尾句同样是所有错误类比的题目通杀的, 只要有错误类比, 这句就写上)
The mere fact that A is scant evidence that B would achieve its goals by following A’s example. Perhaps the same course of action would be ineffective on B due to geological differences between the two islands. Or perhaps ... In short, lacking evidence that conditions on the two islands are relevantly similar, the author cannot convince me on the basis ofA’s experience that the proposed course of action would be effective in attaining Tria’s goals.
所以我们可以看到, 错误类比也是相当好操作的一种错误, 事实上唯一需要动动脑子的就是中间两者差异的列举, 其余部分都是固定的.
The arguer commits a false comparison for the reason that there is no evidence which can show that A and B is comparable at every aspect…(自己的论证) Therefore, without showing that A and B are really comparable at most or even all of their each aspects, the arguer’s comparison is meaningless.