The loan company announced it would soon lend money to borrowers with proven records of their not paying back their loans on time, collectively known as the subprime lending market.
A. of their not paying back their loans on time,
B. of not paying back their loans on time, a group
C. of not paying back their loans on time, with such a group
D. that they do not pay back their loans on time,
E. that they do not pay back their loans on time, such a group
题目释义：loan company announced (that)…borrowers with proven records of …, a group known as…
1. 同位语：同位语由unrestricted adjectival phrase而来，同位语的修饰对象：名词或名词短语或代词
i. N., n.;
ii. n., a/an + n.或a/an + n., n.;
iii. the + n., n.（前面的the + n 为同位结构）
(2) 内容具体化同位结构：抽象名词（theory/evidence/belief/principle）+that 从句，that 从句对抽象名词进行具体化解释（注意与of 结构的区别），that从句部分才是同位语。(that是小品词，连词，和一般的名词性that分句中的that一样)
(3) 概括性同位语：用一个概括性的名词去概括前面的修饰对象：短语/句子，n. +that/doing/done...
(4) 名词重复性同位结构：n,n（重复所修饰的名词）+that 定语从句
(5) 代词代替性同位结构：n,one/ones+that 定语从句
He referred to Copernicus’s statement that the earth moves round the sun.
The rumour spread that a new school would be built here.
He had no idea why she left.
2. Proven records：良好记录
3. Records of sth. 固定搭配，比records that简洁地道。
A．of their not paying back their loans表达不简洁，第一个their累赘；未划线部分的known修饰loans不合理
B．correct；本题关键在于识别出逗号后面成分的修饰对象 -- borrowers的同位语必须是a group才合理，。
borrowers have proven records of not paying back their loans on time，...
borrower have proven records that they do not pay back their loans on time,...
In 1988, the Council on Economic Priorities began publishing Shopping for a Better World, with the simple thesis of consumers having the power to change companies by the simple expedient of refusing to buy.
A. with the simple thesis of consumers having
B. which had the simple thesis of consumers having
C. where the thesis was simple: consumers having
D. with a thesis that is a simple one: consumers have
E. whose thesis was simple: consumers have
题目释义：the Council began publishing SFBW, whose thesis was simple：consumers have…
A．用with引导的非限定性短语做伴随状语错误，而事实上，thesis是Shopping for a Better World这本书的主题，不能作为前面整句话的伴随；thesis后面用of不好，thesis变成了某一类特定的consumers，而合理含义上应该是一个thesis应该是某个现象，因此要改为that从句(同位语从句)，或者用冒号来引出从句
B．thesis应该用同位语从句修饰，thesis of sb. doing sth.结构中thesis的核心只是sb.，而并不是”sb做某事”
C．关系代词where指向Shopping for a Better World不恰当；冒号后虽然可以用名词短语，但此处冒号后核心意思变成了consumers，而不是”consumers怎么怎么样”，逻辑含义不符。
D． with的错误同A；a thesis that is a simple one不简洁
New equipment and other improvements reduced the amount of time—from eleven hours in 1982 to six in 1988—needed by workers so that they could produce a ton of steel.
A. needed by workers so that they could produce
B. needed when workers are producing
C. workers need in producing
D. workers needed to produce
E. workers need for their producing of
题目释义：A reduced the amount of time workers need for doing sth. …
2. Need 的固定搭配： need sth. for sth. need sth to do
A. time needed by workers错误，工人”做什么”需要的时间没有写明；so that +情态动词表示目的，整句的含义是：新器材把工人需要的时间减少了为了工人可以生产一吨煤，逻辑上不合理；they指代workers没有问题
B. when扭曲了句子原本要表达的意思，成了时间状语表示特定时间下才need，同时工人”做什么”需要的时间没有写明（显然不是生产a ton of steel，而是在生产a ton of steel中的某一个环节所需要的时间）；are与主句的时态不一致
C. need与主句时态不一致；need sth. in doing搭配错误
E. 时态不一致；for their producing累赘，不如to produce简洁有效。
Whereas the honeybee’s stinger is heavily barbed and cannot be retracted from the skin, because the yellow jacket has a comparatively smooth stinger, it is therefore able to be pulled out and used again.
A. because the yellow jacket has a comparatively smooth stinger, it is therefore able to be pulled out and used
B. the comparative smoothness of the yellow jacket’s stinger allows them to pull it out and then can therefore use it
C. the yellow jacket’s stinger is comparatively smooth, and can therefore be pulled out and used
D. in comparison, the yellow jacket’s stinger is smooth, and thus able to be pulled out and used
E. in comparison, the yellow jacket has a smooth stinger, thus allowing it to be pulled out and used
题目释义：Whereas the HBS is barbed and cannot be retracted…, YJS is smooth and can…
1. 句子完整结构 (结合前面提到的run-on)
1) S+V1+O1 and V2+O2.是很常见的结构. and之后的主语是S, 可是被省了.
2) S+V1+O1, and pronoun(指代S)+V2+O2. 也是很常见的结构.
3) S+V1+O1 and pronoun(指代S)+V2+O2. 被OG10列为run-on sentence，但如果这两个主谓宾的并列是同在一个分句里（而这个分句又与句子的其他成分并列），则这样的结构也是允许的。
4) 对于S+V1+O1, and V2+O2.结构，and前并不经常补出逗号，通常and前补出逗号是因为前面是插入语一定需要逗号，或者是为了让句子结构更为清晰，比如前面是定语从句，防止第二个谓语动词V2与定语从句中的动词并列；又比如本题的C选项加了逗号，the yellow jacket’s stinger is comparatively smooth, and can therefore be pulled out and used：used和pulled自己独自成为平行，两者组成的小团体又和前面的is平行，如果都连着写，那么会给读者一个is和used平行的印象（虽然我们并不一定会那么读，但是加了逗号更为清晰了）。
2. can和be able to的区别:
You can say that somebody is able to do something, but can is more usual.
Bau can has only two forms: can and could. So sometimes it is necessary to use be able to.
For instance: I will be able to get the car in a week.
**: can和be able to在与主语搭配逻辑上没有问题的情况下(如主语都是”人”，而不是物)，可以平行。
A．whereas表示对比，但前后分句逻辑上无法形成对比(because从句也属于夹心修饰)； 因为前面未划线部分用的是cannot，后面用can更加呼应；be able to be done错误；it指向yellow jacket错误
B．the comparative smoothness of结构复杂(形容词形式简洁于名词形式)，且与前面不对称；them指代不明；use的动作发出者为smoothness错误
C．correct；从形合上直接判断C也是最好的：whereas honeybee’s stinger is barbed, yellow jacket’s stinger is smooth；cannot be retracted与can be pulled out。注意！形合意合的方法是迅速解决难题的一大技巧。另外还有一处意合点：comparatively与前面heavily的对称，可以直接排除B,C,D。
D． In comparison 和 whereas 语义重复；因为前面未划线部分用的是cannot，后面用can更加呼应。
E． In comparison 和 whereas 语义重复；划线部分与前面未划线部分不对称，ineffective。
Like the grassy fields and old pastures that the upland sandpiper needs for feeding and nesting when it returns in May after wintering in the Argentine Pampas, the sandpipers vanishing in the northeastern United States is a result of residential and industrial development and of changes in farming practices.
A. the sandpipers vanishing in the northeastern United States is a result of residential and industrial development and of changes in
B. the bird itself is vanishing in the northeastern United States as a result of residential and industrial development and of changes in
C. that the birds themselves are vanishing in the northeastern United States is due to residential and industrial development and changes to
D. in the northeastern United States, sandpipers' vanishing is due to residential and industrial development and to changes in
E. in the northeastern United States, the sandpipers’ vanishing, a result of residential and industrial development and changing
题目释义：Like the grassy fileds and old pastures…, the birds are vanishing…
2. Due to可以用attributed to或caused by替代来权衡逻辑上是否合理，其次due to，similar to，differing from等有形容词性质的介词，GMAT中一般不能出现在句首。
1）due to一般作为复杂介词与owing to同义。然而有些人认为due在该组合中是形容词，因此反对下句中的用法，因为它违背了无动词分句的依附规则：
Due to bad weather, classes have been cancelled today.
那些人认为下句是可以的：Cancellation of classes today is due to bad weather.
2）due to有attribute, caused by的意思。
Due to means"cause by". It shoud only be used if it can be substitued with "caused by".
It doed not mean the same thing as "because of",
Incorrect: The game was postponed due to rain.
Correct: The game was postponed because of rain.
Correct: The game's postponement was due to rain.
A. the sandpipers vanishing的中心词是sandipipers不是一个result，vanishing只是修饰语，且sandipipers与后面的is主谓不一致
B. correct；就像草原和牧场，sandpiper itself 在消失àlike的比较对象很平行
C. that引导的名词性从句描述的是一个事件与the grassy fields and old pastures不对等
D. sandpipers’ vanishing事件与the grassy fields and old pastures不对等。由于like/unlike的比较相对严格，所以比较对象应尽可能接近，所以把in the northeastern United States放在中间很awkward
E. the sandpipers’ vanishing事件与the grassy fields and old pastures不对等；主句不完整，缺少谓语；development与changes平行，不与practices平行
1. 注意这里未划线部分the grassy fields and old pastures的定语从句that the upland sandpiper needs中的that没有省略，因为that后面成分过于复杂，加入that句子结构更为清晰。
3. Change做n，搭配：Change in； Change of； Change from A to B
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.
A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid
D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
题目释义：… the most extensively used method has been to do sth. and to do sth.…
(1) Aim, goal, intention, objective, function, way, method, purpose + be + to do当然最常用的还是method of doing/for doing
(2) Use, cite, function, regard, think/conceive of, view, act + as
(3) Consider, deem, make, call, find, elect+宾语+宾补
A. the method与the forming不对等；the forming of bricks out of mud or clay和they are laid in the wall in mud mortar不平行；they指代不明
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks与to lay them不平行
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, they were laid不平行
D. Correct；本题主考平行；several ways可以与there be搭配；A method is to do X and to do Y常见搭配；and后面加上逗号的表达并不常见，从本题可见GMAT接受这样的用法(prep1-247也出现类似用法)
The purpose of the sentence is to describe the historically most popular method of building walls. The first clause announces this topic and the second clause describes the particular method. The clearest, most efficient way to accomplish these two pieces of business is to use a parallel structure.The ways to build in the first clause is narrowed to the single way to form and to lay in the second clause. There is no need to alternate the verb phrases between active and passive voice or to shift tenses.
A. The active gerund phrase the forming of bricks does not fi t with the passive verb phrase that follows (they are laid).
B. The verb phrases forming the mud … and to lay them are not parallel.
C. In addition to faulty parallelism between having bricks formed and they were laid, the tense in the second half of the sentence unaccountably shifts from present to past.
D. Correct. The phrases to form and to lay in the second clause are parallel to to build in the first clause.
E. The relative clause beginning with which apparently (but nonsensically) describes the closest nouns, mud or clay, rather than bricks.
Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also caused erosion and very quickly deforested whole regions.
A. Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also
B. Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast), which gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but also
C. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States, creating farmland (especially in the Northeast) and giving consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but also
D. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States created farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also
E. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States not only created farmland (especially in the Northeast), giving consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it
题目释义：The systematic clearing of forests did sth.…,but it also…
1. 平行，关于not only…but also，参见本题后补充说明所摘录的Zeldaw里程碑式的帖子:
如果你一眼看出这个句子考not only，but also于是开始找答案，恭喜你，又上当了。
做题的时候要弄清楚句子的意思是递进还是转折,如果是递进not only...but also 没问题,如果是转折的话,就要考虑一下是否是GMAC的陷阱了, but/but also才是表示转折的意思.
A. not only 位于句首时，所引导的句子要用倒装，give和create是and连接的两个并列成分，而时态已经被did提前，只能用原形，所以这里gave错；But it also在此没有错，例见本题后补充的大全354。
B. Which定语从句修饰farmland，逻辑意义错误，是systematic clearing给了consumers houses and furniture，不是farmland。
C. But also之前分句缺谓语
D. Correct；But it also转折前后句，说明systematic clearing既带来了好东西，也带了坏东西，also的使用，精妙。
E. Giving修饰created,改变了原来的句意：并列的两个动作；Not only…but…也可以，例见大全189、241.
关于not only...but also...----从GWD8-20总结出的
看了GWD8-20, 以前的NN讨论的的太好了,可是藏的太深,很多人都看不见, 后来又看了好些的帖子,,收益良多.所以我把大家观点总结一下,
首先Not only…..but (also)表示的关系是递进, 其中also可以省略
But/but also表示的是转折. 在but also中, ring_cheng认为also不属于重复, 所以应当保留.该观点尚未证实.
not only ...but also表示并列，不能表示转折，不要有先入为主的感觉认为not only...but also必须一起出现。单独出现but also是可能的，此时表示的是转折，参见大全74
All-terrain vehicles have allowed vacationers to reach many previously inaccessible areas, but they have also been blamed for causing hundreds of deaths, injury to thousands, and seriously damaging the nation’s recreational areas.
(A) deaths, injury to thousands, and seriously damaging
(B) deaths and injuring thousands, and serious damage to
(C) deaths, thousands who are injured, as well as seriously damaging
(D) deaths and thousands of injuries, as well as doing serious damage to （D）
(E) deaths, thousands are injured, and they do serious damage to
关于not only…but also.. 的用法,我根据前人的发言并结合GMAT的思路挑出了这几条:
1.在正常语序中: not only … but also 应连接两个相对称的并列成分。例如：
Not only Mr Lin but also his son joined the Party two years ago. （连接两个主语）
I not only play tennis but also practise shooting. （连接两个谓语动词）
He plays not only the piano but also the violin. （连接两个宾语）
在正常语序中: 短语本身不可以加入其它成份，比如变成：not only...but it also...是错误的（因为破坏了平衡）。
125.The winds that howl across the Great Plains not only blow away valuable topsoil, thereby reducing the potential crop yield of a tract of land, and also damage or destroy young plants.
(A) and also damage or destroy
(B) as well as damaging or destroying
(C) but they also cause damage or destroy
(D) but also damage or destroy（D）
(E) but also causing damage or destroying
Choice D, the best answer, correctly employs the correlative construction not only x but also y, where x and y are grammatically parallel and where both x and y (damage and destroy) apply to young plants. Choices A, (not only... and also), B (not only... as well as), and C (not only... but they also) violate the not only... but also paradigm. Moreover, B contains terms (blow... damaging) that are not parallel. In C and E, damage is used not as a verb with young plants as its direct object but as a noun receiving the action of cause; consequently, these choices fail to state explicitly that the damage is done to young plants. E also violates parallelism (not only blow... but also causing)
2. not only … but also 连接两个主语时，谓语动词要和与其最近的主语保持人称和数的一致。例如：
Not only the students but also the teacher was against the plan. / Not only the teacher but also the students were against the plan.
3. not only … but also 不能用在否定句中。例如：
误： They don't fear not only hardship but also death.
正： They fear neither hardship nor death.
正： They don't fear either hardship or death.
4. not only … but also 连接两个分句，并且 not only 位于句首时，第一个分句中的主语和谓语要部分倒装。例如：
Not only does the sun give us light, but also it gives us heat.
Not only did he speak English correctly, but he also speaks it fluently.
《新编英语语法》薄冰P633：Not only does he compose music, but he also plays./ Not only does he have to type out the answer on a computer, but he also gets the computer to translate it into sounds.
《新编英语语法》章振邦1005：She was not only compelled to stay at home, but she was also forbidden to see her friends
英语语法大全上的例句是: Not only did they break into his office and steal his books, but they also tore up his manuscripts. 所以我个人认为在倒装的情况下,but also是可以被主语拆开的.
这里附上ring_cheng的观点:倒装时可以在短语中插入某类成分，如：not only did sb do sth, but sb also did sth （之所以前后都加入主语，不是为了连接主语，而是为了句子的对仗工整而补足主语，连接的其实是主语的两个不同的谓语动作。又因为not only在句首已经倒装过了，所以but also用正常语序即可。依然满足句子平衡的要求）.如大全354中but also被主语+助动词拆开:
354.In 1978 a national study found that not only had many contractors licensed by a self-policing private guild failed to pass qualifying exams, they in addition falsified their references.
A. they in addition falsified their references
B. they had their references falsified in addition
C. but they had also falsified their references
D. they had also falsified their references（C）
E. but their references were falsified as well
not only…but also…的变体总结 -- aeoluseros
1. not only … but also …并不总是这么对称、完整地出现地，以下几种变体也为GMAT所接受：
(1) not only … but …
(2) not only … also…
(3) not only … , … as well (GMAT认可度待定)
OG11-52. The winds that howl across the Great Plains not only blow away valuable topsoil, thereby reducing the potential crop yield of a tract of land, and also damage or destroy young plants.
(A) and also damage or destroy
(B) as well as damaging or destroying
(C) but they also cause damage or destroy
(D) but also damage or destroy
(E) but also causing damage or destroying
key: D 其中OG对A选项的解释为：And also is not the correct idiom; not only is followed by but also or also. à 证实GMAT官方认可not only…also…的用法。
prep 1-147 By pressing a tiny amount of nitrogen between two diamonds to a pressure of 25 million pounds per square inch, scientists were able not only to transform the gas into a solid but to create a semiconductor similar to silicon. à 正式GMAT官方认可not only…but…的用法。
not only ... (but) also ... --> 可惜没有针对性例句.
* Shakespeare was not only a writer but also an actor.
not only do/will/can etc
*Not only do the nurses want a pay increase, they want reduced hours as well.
à not only … as well …
not only...(but) also (used to emphasize the addition of sb/sth 用以强调递进关系的某人[某事物]):
* Not only the grandparents were there but also the aunts, uncles and cousins.
* He not only writes his own plays, he also acts in them.
当第二部分只是强调第一部分时，在not only 结构里 also 通常省略。
He not only wanted the diamond but wanted it desperately.
(4) Cambridge，not only：
not only ... (but) also used to say that two related things are true or happened, especially when this is surprising or shockingNot only did he turn up late, he also forgot his books.
If this project fails it will affect not only our department, but also the whole organization.
(5) 另外在LONGMAN里查only，有这么一条：not only ... but (also) at not.
. 注意除了之外，are...but are...也是一种平行，即not在平行之外.
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are
key：D … many biological traits are not the products…, but are simply random…
Past assessments of the Brazilian rain forest have used satellite images to tally deforested areas, where farmers and ranchers have clear-cut and burned all the trees, but such work has not addressed either logging, which is the removal of only selected trees, as well as surface fires, burning down individual trees but do not denude the forest.
A. which is the removal of only selected trees, as well as surface fires, burning
B. which removes only selected trees, or surface fires that burn
C. which removes only selected trees, along with surface fires that burn
D. removing only selected trees, or surface fires, burning
E. removing only selected trees, as well as surface fires that burn
题目释义：…, but such work has not addressed either logging, which…, or surface fires, that burn…but do not denude the forest…
4) ing分词的完成时态不能充当名词的限制性定语,必须转化为定语从句n.+ having done —》n. that…
A. which is the removal表达不简洁；either…. as well as搭配错误；Burning和denude不平行
B. Correct；either … or的平行，removes和burn的平行。
C. either…along with搭配错误。
E. either…. as well as搭配错误；
The Quechuans believed that all things participated in both the material level and the mystical level of reality, and many individual Quechuans claimed to have contact with it directly with an ichana (dream) experience.
A. contact with it directly with
B. direct contact with it by way of
C. contact with the last directly through
D. direct contact with the latter by means of
E. contact directly with the mystical level due to
题目释义：Q believed that all things participated in both A and B, and many Q claimed to have direct contact with the latter by means of…
1. 通过…方式：through… /by means of…/with…/by way of…
A．it指代不清；directly有修饰contact或with an ichana experience的歧义：修饰contact时意为通过ichana来直接接触，修饰with短语意为只能通过ichana来接触(不一定是直接接触)
C．两者之间的后者应该用latter；directly有修饰contact或through an ichana experience的歧义：修饰contact时意为通过ichana来直接接触，修饰through短语则意为只能通过ichana来接触(不一定是直接接触)。
E． due to不能引导表原因，用此逻辑不符；directly错误同A
A scrub jay can remember when it cached a particular piece of food in a particular place, researchers have discovered, and tend not to bother to recover a perishable treat if stored long enough to have rotted.
A. tend not to bother to recover a perishable treat if
B. they tend not to bother recovering a perishable treat
C. tending not to bother to recover a perishable treat it
D. tends not to bother recovering a perishable treat
E. tends not bothering to recover a perishable treat it
题目释义：A scrub jay can remember ..., …, and tends not to bother recovering a treat…
Tend to do sth -- If something tends to happen, it happens often and is likely to happen again
Tend to sb/sth 照顾
(not) bother to do something He didn't bother to answer the question.
not bother about/with He didn't bother with a reply.
(not) bother doing something Many young people didn't bother voting.
3. scrub jay 林鸟
A. tend单复数错误，应为单数，对应主语A scrub jay；if从句省去主谓，还原后主语是jay而不是treat，错误；Bother to do/bother doing都是对的
B. they指代不明，与scrub jay单复数不一致
C. and后分句少谓语；it多余，有了it，指代的是jay，后面的stored要用stores，因为it stores long enough已经是一个定语从句，但此时have rotted作为it即jay的动作又逻辑不合理，所以依然错误
D. Correct；tends使用正确，主谓一致；bother doing用法idiomatic；stored后置定语修饰treat正确
E. tend doing没有这种用法；it多余，错误同C