A new study finds that the more hostility people show in their behavior and attitudes, then calcium
deposits are more likely to be in the arteries of their hearts.
(A) then calcium deposits are more likely to be
(B) then the more likely calcium deposits are
(C) the more there are likely to be calcium deposits
(D) the more likely they are to have calcium deposits
(E) the more likely there are to be calcium deposits
A. The more…, the more….句型使用错误
B. The more…, the more….句型使用错误
C. The more…, the more….句型使用错误
D. 正确，they指代people，they are (more likely) to have 与 people show (more hostility)均为主
E. 仅就The more…, the more….句型而言，此句没有语法问题。但是，D选项两个the more后面采
句子结构：A new study finds that….为句子主结构。
That引导的宾语从句采用the more…, the more…结构。
1) The more…, the more….为一个固定的句型结构，该句型的使用有三个规则：
b) 当句子谓语是be动词时，be可以省略，前后两个都适用。特别是当主谓为it is时，常同时省
略，比如：The greater (it is), the better (it is).
c) 第二个the more后面的句子可以使用倒装句，但是第一个the more后不能使用倒装句
Unlike Schoenberg's twelve-tone system that dominated the music of the postwar period, Bartók founded no school and left behind only a handful of disciples.
A. Schoenberg's twelve-tone system that dominated
B. Schoenberg and his twelve-tone system which dominated
C. Schoenberg, whose twelve-tone system dominated
D. the twelve-tone system of Schoenberg that has dominated
E. Schoenberg and the twelve-tone system, dominating
题目释义：Unlike Schoenberg, whose…, Bartók….
A. 比较对象是Bartók和Schoenberg’s twelve-tone system，不对等。
B. 比较对象是Bartók和Schoenberg and his twelve-tone system比较，不对等；关系代词which只能引导非限定性定语从句，且which指代了”Schoenberg and his twelve-tone system”错误。
D. 比较对象是Bartók和the twelve-tone system，不对等；现在完成时表示了system现今仍然在dominate music，逻辑错误。
E. 比较错误同B，不对等；dominating是”squinting modifier”修饰对象不明，既可以向前修饰Schoenberg and the twelve-tone system，也可以向后修饰Bartók。
Comparison + Modification
The original sentence makes the logical error of comparing Bartok to the 12-tone system. The lack of clarity results in the implication that the system might have founded a school or left behind disciples. The sentence must clearly indicate that it is the individuals, Bartok and Schoenberg, who are being compared. It must also make it plain that it was the system that dominated the music of the postwar period.
A. Illogically compares Bartok to the 12-tone system, rather than to Schoenberg
B. Incorrect use of and illogically compares Bartok to the system; incorrect pronoun use
C. Correct. This sentence makes the logical comparison between the individuals, and the relative clause clarifies that it is the system that dominated the music of the postwar period.
D. Illogically compares Bartok to the system, rather than to Schoenberg, perfect verb form has dominated distorts the meaning by indicating that the system continues to dominate music today
E. Incorrect use of and illogically compares Bartok to the system as well as Schoenberg; introduces confusion about what dominating modifies
The correct answer is C.
C, the best answer, is the only choice that makes a logical comparison: Unlike Schoenberg, .. . Bartok.
In A, B, and D, Bartok, a person, is compared either to Schoenberg's twelve-tone system or to Schoenberg and his twelve-tone system as a unit. Such comparisons are neither logically sound nor seman-tically parallel.
Consequently, A and D illogically suggest that Schoenberg's twelve-tone system founded a school and left behind many disciples.
Choice B suggests that Schoenberg and his twelve-tone system together accomplished these feats.
In E, the comparison is illogical and the modification is ambiguous (dominating). Schoenberg and his system, as a unit, are not only compared to Bartok, an individual, but also credited with having formed a school. The verb phrase dominating ... is called a "squinting modifier" because it looks in both direc¬tions: given the structure of the sentence, it could be meant to modify either Schoenberg and the twelve-tone system or Bartok.
4. 关于misplaced modifier, dangling modifier, squinting modifier的区别:
(1)MISPLACED MODIFIER: Some modifiers, especially simple modifiers — only, just, nearly, barely — have a bad habit of slipping into the wrong place in a sentence. (In the sentence below, what does it mean to "barely kick" something?)
Confusion: He barely kicked that ball twenty yards.
Repair Work: He kicked that ball barely twenty yards.
(2)DANGLING MODIFIER: When we begin a sentence with a modifying word, phrase, or clause, we must make sure the next thing that comes along can, in fact, be modified by that modifier. When a modifier improperly modifies something, it is called a "dangling modifier." This often happens with beginning participial phrases, making "dangling participles" an all too common phenomenon. In the sentence below, we can't have a car changing its own oil.
Confusion: Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, the car seemed to run better.
Repair Work: Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, Fred found he could get much better gas mileage.
*: An infinitive phrase can also "dangle." The infinitive phrase below should probably modify the person(s) who set up the exercise program.
Confusion: To keep the young recruits interested in getting in shape, an exercise program was set up for the summer months.
Repair Work: To keep the young recruits interested in getting in shape, the coaching staff set up an exercise program for the summer months.
(3) SQUINTING MODIFIER: A third problem in modifier placement is described as a "squinting modifier." This is an unfortunate result of an adverb's ability to pop up almost anywhere in a sentence; structurally, the adverb may function fine, but its meaning can be obscure or ambiguous. For instance, in the sentence below, do the students seek advice frequently or can they frequently improve their grades by seeking advice? You can't tell from that sentence because the adverb often is "squinting" (you can't tell which way it's looking). Let's try placing the adverb elsewhere.
Confusion: Students who seek their instructors' advice often can improve their grades.
Repair Work: Student who often seek their instructors' advice can improve their grades.
Repair Work: Students who seek their instructors' advice can often improve their grades.
For centuries, people on sea voyages washed their clothes by placing the dirty laundry in a strong cloth bag, then toss it overboard, and let the ship drag the bag for hours.
A. then toss it overboard, and let
B. then toss them overboard, and they let
C. tossing it overboard, and letting
D. tossing them overboard, and let
E. tossing it overboard, and let
题目释义：People washed clothes by placing…, then tossing…, and letting....
A. toss, let和前面的placing不平行；then多余，不应该在第二个并列成分中出现。
B. toss, they let都是wash的动作，应该与前面的placing平行都用现在分词；them属于by后面的意群，不能指代到by前面的their clothes头上去，所以无所指，应该用it来指代the dirty laundry in a strong cloth bag。
There is nowhere in early American literature where the influence of Jane Austen is so apparent as the novels of James Fenimore Cooper.
A. There is nowhere in early American literature where the influence of Jane Austen is so apparent as
B. In early American literature, nowhere is Jane Austin's influence so apparent than in
C. It is nowhere more apparent in early American literature that Jane Austen was an influence as in
D. Nowhere in early American literature is the influence of Jane Austen more apparent than in
E. Nowhere in early American literature is it more apparent that Jane Austen had an influence than
题目释义：Nowhere in … is sth. more apparent than in …
Jane Austen在美国文学的影响没有比在James Fenimore Cooper的小说中更明显的地方了
1. 比较结构标志词：nowhere…than… ; any other places … than…
3. James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. He is best remembered as a novelist who wrote numerous sea-stories and the historical novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the Romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, often regarded as his masterpiece.
A. Nowhere是副词，there be句型没有主语；比较对象不平行，应该是where…so…as…in the novels，其中关系副词where代表in early American literature没有问题
B. in early American literature是修饰nowhere的，这里变成了修饰整句使得逻辑错误；so…than搭配错误
C. more…as搭配错误；in early American literature再次修饰了整句使得逻辑错误；把the influence of Jane Austen改为从句句式复杂(awkward)
D. correct；原句可还原为：The influence of Jane Austen is more apparent nowhere in early American literature than in the novels of James Fenimore Cooper. (nowhere…than…)本句是地点状语的完全倒装
E. 比较对象不对等，than后面少了个in；句式复杂，没必要把the influence of Jane Austen改为从句。
大全540.Nowhere in Prakta is the influence of modern European architecture more apparent than their government buildings.
(A) more apparent than their
(B) so apparent as their
(C) more apparent than in its
(D) so apparent than in their
(E) as apparent as it is in its
高级【倒装结构】大总结，迎合GMAT考点要求– by charlesxiepeng
Among the people was a man named Brown. 在这些人中有一个叫布朗的人。
On the top of the hill stands an old temple. 这山顶上有一座庙。
From the valley came a frightening sound with some cries.
North of the city lies/is a new airport.
Helping them raise their artistic level are various professorial organizations.
Visiting the Great Wall were 200 American college students.
Coinciding with the development of jazz in New Orleans in the 1920's was one of the greatest periods in blues music. (toefl原句）【coinciding with…显然不是动名词而是现在分词倒装】
·下面例句是动名词作主语：Teaching English is my job. / Visiting the Great wall is worthwhile.
Present at the meeting is our English teacher. (Present出席的，在场的)
Gone are the days when we had a good time at the mountain village. (Gone 离去的)
They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of which sat a small boy.
Noteworthy is the fact that he has talent for music.
1. 一些表示频率的副词(如many a time, often等)位于句首时 ,句子部分倒装.
Often did we go for walks together.
Many a time have I told him about it.
2. 用于“no sooner…than…, hardly…when…和not until等结构中”
No sooner had he arrived than someone called him.他一到就有人给他打电话
3. 用于省略if的虚拟条件状语从句(把were, had, should放在主语前构成倒装)
Were I you ( = If I were you ), I would not accept his present.
Had you ( = If you had ) studied hard, you might have passed the exam this time.
4. 用于“形容词/名词/动词+as (though)”引导的让步状语从句，例如：
·形容词：Pretty as she is（=As pretty as she is=though she is pretty）, she is not clever at all.
·动词：Try as he could, he might fail again.
·名词：Child as he was, he had to sell newspapers in the streets.
5. 否定副词（never, not…, seldom, hardly, neither, nor, scarcely, rarely, no longer, barely, little）
Barely did he have time to catch the bus.
Never have I been to Beijing.
6. So / Such 引导的倒装句
So kind is she that she deserves all my respect.(全倒装)
So loudly did he speak that everyone could hear him.
7. Only在句首强调状语Only when the meeting is over can we know the decision.
With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom.
A. Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with
B. Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its
C. Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has
D. Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its
E. Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have
题目释义：…, Eruopa has long been considered far too cold to do sth, its 60 square miles of water thought to be …
平行结构（parallelism） 题目释义（grammatical construction）
2. consider A B：把A认为是B，中间不加as和to be，其中B为名词或形容词。
B. correct；its 60 square miles of water thought to be…做been considered的伴随状语做补充说明逻辑最合理。
C. consider … as累赘；把has 60 square miles和consider并列，逻辑上不是最合适的。
D. and前后都是sentence fragment，而不是完整句子；consider…as累赘。
E. consider to be累赘；and前后都不是完整句子，错误。
B选项的后半句its 60 square miles of…是一个独立主格结构。具体可以参考以下内容：http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm#absolute
Usually (but not always, as we shall see), an absolute phrase (also called a nominative absolute) is a group of words consisting of a noun or pronoun and a participle as well as any related modifiers. Absolute phrases do not directly connect to or modify any specific word in the rest of the sentence; instead, they modify the entire sentence, adding information. They are always treated as parenthetical elements and are set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or a pair of commas (sometimes by a dash or pair of dashes). Notice that absolute phrases contain a subject (which is often modified by a participle), but not a true finite verb.
· Their reputation as winners secured by victory, the New York Liberty charged into the semifinals. (charge into 猛攻入)
· The season nearly finished, Rebecca Lobo and Sophie Witherspoon emerged as true leaders.
· The two superstars signed autographs into the night, their faces beaming happily.
When the participle of an absolute phrase is a form of to be, such as being or having been, the participle is often left out but understood.
· The season [being] over, they were mobbed by fans in Times Square.
· [Having been] Stars all their adult lives, they seemed used to the attention.
Another kind of absolute phrase is found after a modified noun; it adds a focusing detail or point of focus to the idea of the main clause. This kind of absolute phrase can take the form of a prepositional phrase, an adjective phrase, or a noun phrase.
· The old firefighter stood over the smoking ruins, his senses alert to any sign of another flare-up.
· His subordinates, their faces sweat-streaked and smudged with ash, leaned heavily against the firetruck.
· They knew all too well how all their hard work could be undone — in an instant.
It is not unusual for the information supplied in the absolute phrase to be the most important element in the sentence. In fact, in descriptive prose, the telling details will often be wrapped into a sentence in the form of an absolute phrase:
· Coach Nykesha strolled onto the court, her arms akimbo and a large silver whistle clenched between her teeth.
· The new recruits stood in one corner of the gym, their uniforms stiff and ill fitting, their faces betraying their anxiety.
A noun phrase can also exist as an absolute phrase: (GMAT中暂未出现此现象)
· Your best friends, where are they now, when you need them?
· And then there was my best friend Sally — the dear girl — who has certainly fallen on hard times.
It might be useful to review the material on Misplaced Modifiers because it is important not to confuse an absolute phrase with a misplaced modifier.
Deborah Aguiar-Velez, founder of Sistemas Corporation, has written a computer textbook in Spanish for people who speak Spanish and so then do not have to rely on translations from English.
A. for people who speak Spanish and so then
B. for people who speak Spanish, and then they
C. for people speaking Spanish who
D. so that people who speak Spanish (D)
E. so that people can speak Spanish and then
题目释义：DA-V has written a textbook in Spanish so that…
D. Correct；people who speak Spanish和people speaking Spanish并没有很大区别；最合理的含义在此：以至于人们能够说西班牙语并且之后不用依赖从英语（向西班牙语）的翻译。
E. So that + 情态动词表示目的，目的不是为了让人们会讲西班牙语，所以逻辑错误。
The striking differences between the semantic organization of Native American languages and that of European languages, in both grammar and vocabulary, have led scholars to think about the degree to which differences in language may be correlated with nonlinguistic differences.
A. that of European languages, in both grammar and vocabulary, have
B. that of European languages, including grammar and vocabulary, has
C. those of European languages, which include grammar and vocabulary, have
D. those of European languages, in grammar as well as vocabulary, has
E. those of European languages, both in grammar and vocabulary, has
题目释义：The striking differences …, in both grammar and vocabulary, have led scholars to think about…
语法结构（grammatical construction） 逻辑意思（logical predication） 主谓一致（agreement）
1. 句子的主语是the striking differences，谓语用复数。
2. 比较对象是the semantic organization，是个单数比较对象，指代应该用that。
A. Correct；“differences (between A and B) in + 某个方面”固定搭配。
B. has错误，应该是复数；differences including grammar and vocabulary不合理。
C. those指代单数名词semantic organization错；Which离其修饰对象differences太远，而有修饰Europoean languages的歧义。
D. those错；has错；As well as有一个主次之分，用在这里不合适。
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
A. they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
B. after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again
C. in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again
D. with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
E. a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again
题目释义：Sales declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked A, …,with B.
A. correct；They是完全指代，指代sales of wines；and particularly of red wine中去掉and也是对的(and可放在插入语前，不影响逻辑—lcy19812000)；begin to do或begin doing都正确；in particular在本题不如particularly有效，因为介词太多句式会复杂。
B. red wine与alcohol consumption概念不同，不能同位修饰，应该在red wine后面也补上consumption；they离其所指代的slaes太远，使得句子理解起来不清晰，awkward；link A with B，A和B谁在前并不要紧。
C. in a 1991 report修饰but后整句，使句意荒谬：在报告里，酒的销量开始上升；which指代的是red wine，错误(which通常就近指代)；particularly of red wine与moderate alcohol consumption不平行，后者应改为moderate consumption of alcohol；cause的主语是consumption，逻辑意思很荒谬，正确的主语应该是report。
D. red wine不能同位修饰alcohol consumption，要在red wine前面加上of；they began growing中的they离其指代对象sales过远。
E. in a 1991 report有修饰moderate alcohol consumption的歧义，好像consumption是发生在report里，还是A的表达最为明确；in particular red wine无法修饰alcohol consumption，概念不同；start的主语是risk错误；start them中的them指代不清。
Logical predication; Rhetorical construction
This sentence explains why a trend of declining wine sales reversed after the publication of a 1991 report suggesting that moderate consumption of red wine correlated with reduced risk of heart disease. The phrase particularly of red wine modifies consumption of alcohol, and the sentence must make clear that it is moderate consumption, not red wine that the report links to reduced risk.
A. Correct. In the second clause, they refers correctly to sales of wines; the relative clause beginning with that clearly indicates that the report linked moderate consumption … with a reduced risk.
B. Particularly red wine cannot describe consumption—the preposition of is needed; the placement of they so far from the position of the antecedent Sales makes the sentence awkward and difficult to decode.
C. The clause beginning with which refers to red wine in this construction, erroneously suggesting that wine rather than moderate consumption of alcohol correlates with reduced risk of heart disease; particularly of red wine is not parallel to moderate alcohol consumption; it needs to follow moderate consumption of alcohol to make sense.
D. Without the preposition of, the sentence indicates that red wine is a kind of consumption—which makes no sense.
E. The incorrect placement of the modifier in a 1991 report suggests that wine is being consumed (albeit in moderation) in the report itself.
The correct answer is A.
2. 本题的秒杀方法：只有A选项but前后才是平行对称的，S.V.O+介词短语做时间状语，but S.V.O.+介词短语做时间状语。如此平行的结构，应该在第一时间对A建立好感。其次再用平行结构确认选项的排除。
GWD24-Q23: Discussion of greenhouse effects has usually focused on whether the Earth would warm and by how much, but climatologists have indicated all along that the most obvious effects, and those that would have the largest impact on people, would be extremes of temperature, precipitation, and storminess.
A. the most obvious effects, and those that would have the largest impact on people, would be extremes of temperature, precipitation, and storminess
B. the effects that are the most obvious ones, extremes of temperature, precipitation, and storminess, would be those impacting the most on people
C. those effects to have the largest impact on people, extremes of temperature, precipitation, and storminess, are what are the most obvious effects
D. extremes of temperature, precipitation, and storminess, the most obvious effects, that they would have the largest impact on people
E. extremes of temperature, precipitation, and storminess, which are the most obvious effects, are those to impact the most on people
此类似题与本题的相似之处在于：those that前面多了一个and，类似于particularly of red wine前面多了一个and。à这个and都是起到强调语气的作用。
key: the first choice.
The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia indicates that by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country have been attacked by the birds.
A. by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country have been attacked by the birds
B. by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked by the birds
C. by the time they reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country had been attacked by the birds
D. 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they reach adulthood
E. 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attacked by the birds
题目释义：The first study of magpie attacks indicates that by the time they reached adulthood, 98%of men and 75% of women had been attacted by the birds.
语法结构（grammatical construction） 逻辑意思（logical predication）
A. 时态错误，前面是had reached adulthood，后面是have been attacked by，而事实上前者发生在后者的后面，时态混乱，而且人类在reach adulthood之后不会再有成长阶段，所以不应该用had reached adulthood，而应该用一般过去时；再者由于be attack发生在reach adulthood前面，所以有明显的时间对比，应该be attack用过去完成时had been attacked。
B. reach的时态错误，同时使得had been attacked没有时间对比来说明be attack是发生在过去的过去；Who引导的定语从句是非限制性修饰，使得逻辑含义错误。
C. correct；在第一次顺读句子的时候they虽然有向前指代attacks的倾向，但看到了reached adulthood，即可排除这个倾向，而判断they是向后指代men and women；本句把by the time放在宾语从句的最前面是最合理的，因为要强调一个截止的时间点。
D. that were可以省略，而且that仅用于指代非人类事物；were attacked和reach时态错误。
E. who were可以省略；adulthood后面少了逗号，错误，独立的修饰成分必须用两个逗号隔开；把by the time插在句子中间，显得很awkward。
In a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition is concentrated in a metal center, but now it is lined with lead around the perimeter, thereby improving stability in flight and resulting in longer throws.
A. In a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition is concentrated in a metal center, but now it is
B. According to a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition was concentrated in a metal center, but now it is
C. Once designed with its weight concentrated in a metal center, the discus used in track competition is now
D. The discus used in track competition, once designed with its weight concentrated in a metal center, but now
E. The discus used in track competition was once designed having its weight concentrated in a metal center and now
题目释义: Once designed with…, the discus … is … now lined with…, thereby improving…
2. line: vt. to cover the inner surface of
(A) it指代weight of the discus错误；划线部分is concentrated应该使用过去时态。
(B) it指代问题，同A；According to改变了原文的逻辑意思，原文不是想说根据，只是陈述客观事实。
(C) Correct；Designed引导的过去分词结构作定语修饰句子主语 the discus，逻辑正确。
(E) design固定搭配，没有design doing的结构；having concentrated 完成时使用没必要；后半句没有谓语动词，and now 应该为and now is 时态改变，因此不能直接并列，前半句使用的是过去时态was.
生词: discus n.(铁饼) 不误认做discuss
Perimeter n. 周边，边缘
Verb Form; Grammatical construction; Logical predication
The sentence requires two tenses—past tense to describe the previous design and present tense to describe the current design of the discus. In the sentence presented here, the grammatical subject is weight, not discus, so the pronoun it grammatically refers to weight, which makes no sense.
A. The verb tense describing the previous design should be past, not present; the pronoun it refers to the subject of the fi rst clause, weight, and it does not make sense to say that the weight of the discus is lined with lead.
B. Although the tense of the verb in the fi rst clause is appropriately past, the pronoun in the second clause is still referring to weight instead of discus.
C. Correct. The introductory phrase describes the past design of the discus with a past participle (designed) that modifies the subject of the main clause (the discus); the main verb is lined is in present tense.
D. This version of the sentence is a fragment because it has no main verb.
E. The sentence is missing a main verb in the final phrase; was once designed must be followed by is now lined.
The correct answer is C.
design something to do something
be designed for somebody/something
be designed as something
be designed with sth
2.According to 与 In accordance with的区别：
In accordance with
This expression emphasises the rule, principle, law etc, which is followed, and which states what should happen. This is shown in the following citations:
1. The Commission insists that these funds must be spent in accordance with all the Community's most sacred environmental principles, to say nothing of its legislation.
2. Last month, the bank's management submitted a detailed plan for making changes in accordance with the review's findings.
3. The court may in accordance with law grant a dissolution of the marriage provided that the court is satisfied that adequate and proper provision will be made for any dependant spouse and for any child.
4. Existing Sidewinders follow a preset path with the help of sets of rigid fins, at the front and back, that alter position in accordance with instructions from an on-board computer.
5. The UN's peace plan rests on Mr Rabbani's willingness to relinquish office next month in accordance with one of the many peace pacts he has concluded.
6. If such a question arises for the first time in a lawsuit, the judge will have to decide the meaning in accordance with the recognized rules of interpretation, and his decision will be a binding authority for all future cases in which the same question arises.
This expression emphasises the basis for doing something, or for believing something:
7. Air pollution is growing worse in Britain, according to the latest set of detailed statistics compiled by the Department of the Environment.
8. Our Galaxy contains at least 100 million black holes, according to calculations by a Dutch astrophysicist.
9. Most organochlorine pollution in the Baltic is declining, according to a joint study by scientists at Ehime University in Japan and the University of Gdansk in Poland.
10. According to Alkenbrecher, Binning's theory is that true creativity is a result of disordered thoughts.
11. Each of the 10,000 most common words in English is ranked according to its frequency in everyday use.
12. Japanese oil tankers constructed according to a modern design with high-tensile steel have been recalled for emergency repairs to cracks.
Notice that there is some overlap between the two expressions: so 11 and 12 could equally as well have been written (因为11，12也是一个rule):
13. Each of the 10,000 most common words in English is ranked according to its frequency in everyday use.
14. Japanese oil tankers constructed according to a modern design with high-tensile steel have been recalled for emergency repairs to cracks.
根据XX号文规定，应该怎样怎样，我们一开始都写：According to Circular ***
公司请了两个老外editor，专门帮我们挑报告中不规范的英语用法。然后老外就向我们提出来说，这个地方要用In accordance with，不能用according to。他们的理由是，according to后面要跟法规的具体内容，而如果单说是根据什么什么法规，就要用in accordance with。
看 according to 一般要连更为具体的内容，通常放在句首，或者句中作插入语，根据目前的Gmat题，不需要逻辑一致。