Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
A. Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,
题目释义： Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool ….; instead, it has become ….
两个分句组成一个长句，前句主语Marconi，谓语conceive of sth as sth.，as a tool作为宾语补足语，由定语从句进一步修饰；后句主语是it指代的radio，谓语为become的完成时态，宾语a tool。
1. Opposite做名词时：a person or thing that is as different as possible from someone or something else
What's the opposite of 'optimistic'?
She's quite shy, the exact opposite of Becky.
The two men were complete opposites - Simon tall and fair, Clive short and dark.
If anything, the opposite was true.
Is it sensible to think of masculine/feminine as polar opposites (=exactly or completely opposite) ?
(cannot) conceive of (doing) something
conceive that （不用虚拟语气）
conceive of something/somebody as something
conceive what/why/how etc
conceive sth. (such as idea)
3. other than = With the exception of; except (for); besides:
(A) Marconi's conception of the radio用法awkward，不如直接用动词形式conceive of简洁；conception与substitute概念对等，不需要as，as多余；A tool应该修饰radio，但位置上却修饰telephone；It指代conception,逻辑意义荒谬
(B) A tool应该修饰radio，但位置上却修饰telephone；But后的which无指代对象；but前后不平行
(C) Correct；conceived of…as…用法正确；That跳跃修饰a tool(定语从句的引导词指代是可以根据逻辑跳跃不复杂的介宾短语)由于介词词组要紧跟其修饰对象，避免产生歧义，就把that从句放后面，如果把for private conversation换个地方，修饰对象改变后会产生逻辑错误；it指代radioàthe ratio has become the opposite发展成了对立面
(D) conceived of…to be…用法错误；which荒谬的修饰了telephone
(E) conceived of…to be…用法错误；A tool应该修饰radio，但位置上却造成修饰telephone的歧义；other than后面的句子，使得句意完全改变；other than=except，是“除了…以外”的意思，other than应改为rather than，意为“而不是…”；what it is中，it指代radio没有问题，用了一般现在时表示“现在radio成了什么”，逻辑上没错，但是使得句式复杂àthe opposite 说明其是做名词，是 what 的同位语，而后面再跟一个同位语 a tool 来修饰 the opposite ，实在太过复杂 awkark。
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy's continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.
A. because of the economy's continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy's strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy's continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy's continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will
题目释义： Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised….five times, and because of …, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be……..
1. 本题主要考察的时态和虚拟语气。时态上，for weeks，for有持续的含义，所以用现在完成时正确；同时，since February. the Fed连续5次加息，那么在这持续加息的日子中分析家也就持续predicting，所以完成进行时正确。
2. 区分will，would。这里的意思表示，很肯定的断定**发生，没有虚拟，没有与现在相反的语境，所以，用will最好。Predict是要搭配will的，不同于expect to do。除了用在过去时态中，would用在虚拟里（与现实相反），不用在肯定语境中。
(A) Correct；have been predicting表达的意思是(几周以来)至今仍在预测，而且与后面的will相呼应à表明预测的是以后的事；because of strength结构是正确的，因为because of后面成功地接了核心意思strength，如果改为because of economy that continues strength就错了。
(B) predicted一般过去时错误，句首Since February，后面的for weeks是完成时态的标志，不能说analysts predicted for weeks；predict 从句用将来时，不用虚拟语气；with the economy's strength continuing中continuing用了现在时态错误，应该改为that continues；改为with伴随状语，少了因果语气。
(C) predicted一般过去时错误，句首Since February，后面的for weeks是完成时态的标志，不能说analysts predicted for weeks（predicted是个短时间完成的动作），同时，predict不可能发生在continue前面，不能用一般过去时，这是先果后因。
(D) due to不放在句首作状语，due to在书面语中一般作表语或后置定语，相当于caused by；predict从句用将来时，不用虚拟语气，不能直接用be。
(E) predicted一般过去时错误，句首Since February，后面的for weeks是完成时态的标志，不能说analysts predicted for weeks；due to the fact of冗余；due to不放在句首做状语，因为due to只具有形容词性(adjective)，而不具有介词性(preposition)，due to在书面语中一般作表语或后置定语。
1) 表示建议：advocate/advise/move/recommend that ... do ...
sb. suggest/propose that ... do ...(如果是物作主语就不需要虚拟，动词是“暗示”的意思)
2) 表示命令：order/decree/mandate/command/demand/direct that ... do ...
3) 表示要求：request/require/insist that ... do ...
2. 介词词组：on account of， because of， despite (in despite of)，as a result of， due to之后只跟简单的名词词组（动名词短语也属于名词词组）。
Analyzing campaign expenditures, the media has had as a focus the high costs and low ethics of campaign finance, but they have generally overlooked the cost of actually administering elections, which includes facilities, transport, printing, staffing, and technology.
A. Analyzing campaign expenditures, the media has had as a focus
B. Analyses of campaign expenditures by the media has been focused on
C. In analyzing campaign expenditures, the media have focused on
D. Media analyses of campaign expenditures have had as a focus
E. In their analysis of campaign expenditures, the media has been focusing on
题目释义： In analyzing.., the media have focused on …., but they have overlooked….
句子主语，the media 是复数形式，谓语动词focus的完成时态，接but引导的转折句，主语they，指代the media，谓语overlook的完成时态。But的前后形式一致，平行对称。
(A) media是复数形式，原型是medium，has主谓不一致错误；has had sth. as a focus(sth.在此因为过长而后置)表达wordy,可以直接使用focus的动词形式
(C) Correct；从形合的角度来看，focus和overlook都是主动名词前后对应，而have则是表明特性，所以用focus更为合适；(in) analyzing现在分词与主句用现在完成时并不矛盾。
(D) has had sth. as a focus(sth.在此因为过长而后置)表达wordy，可以直接使用focus的动词形式；they指代analyses，而analyses是否可以focus和overlook，仍需等待GMAT进一步阐明家规(详细见题后类似题链接)
(E) media是复数形式，原型是medium，has使用错误，主谓不一致；has been focusing on，没有必要使用完成进行时，它不是一段时间内持续进行的事儿，题目中没有相关的时态标志词，且根据but前后时态对称也应该用现在完成时
1. The media = all the organizations, such as television, radio, and newspapers, that provide news and information for the public, or the people who do this work
2. windmaple: Speaking of plurals, [index] 's is definitely an outlier
大全447. It may be that by focusing primarily on a patient’s mental condition and on vague and often very speculative psychodynamic factors, predications about the patient’s future behavior decrease in accuracy.
(A) predications about the patient’s future behavior decrease in accuracy
(B) mental health professionals lessen the accuracy of their predications about the patient’s future behavior
(C) the accuracy of predications about the patient’s future behavior lessens
(D) a decrease in accuracy is seen in predications about the patient’s future behavior can be predicted less accurately
(E) the patient’s future behavior can be predicted less accurately
Key： B focus的逻辑主语
日常英语中analysis, report可以行使focus, overlook，但是如果GMAT中可以的话，D选项语法上也就没有correctiveness错误了，而且包括本题后的“类似题链接”中A选项的排除理由即predications无法行使focus错误。但predications与analyses终究不同，一个是预测（google中基本没有搜索结果），一个是分析（google里，report, analysis与focus/focuses的搭配有上百万的结果），所以或许173题的D选项确实就那么一个ineffecitve point。综上，analyses是否可以focus和overlook，仍需等待GMAT进一步阐明家规。
An exceptionally literate people, more Icelanders publish books per capita than do the people of any other nation.
A. more Icelanders publish books per capita than do the people of
B. more Icelandic books are published by Icelanders per capita than by the people of
C. Icelanders publish more books per capita than do the people of
D. Iceland’s per capita publication of books is higher than that by
E. the per capita publication of Icelandic books is higher than that in
题目释义： Icelanders publish more books than do the people of….
主语是Icelanders，谓语publish，后接more than的比较结构，补出助动词，避免引起相对于publish book，publish了更多any other nation的错误。An exceptionally literate people作为同位语，决定了紧跟其的主语需要和people含义对应，逻辑对等。
2) 比较，less/more adj … than… ，比较对象要对等，补出助动词以避免产生歧义，介系词不可省略， 常见的错误用法有：缺少助动词；补出的助动词与前面不一致。
3) per capita可做adj.，也可以做adv.。
(A) 逻辑意思错误，应该是per capita（每个人头）出版的书多，而不是更多的人出版书；同时应该用more books…per capita，用了more icelander…per capita显然不对
(B) 变成by Icelanders per capita than by the people of的比较，逻辑意思变为更多Icelandic的书是由其他国家的人出版的，改变原义
(D) people与publication不能构成同位语关系；that指代per capita publication，比较对象上没有问题；by结构与前面的结构不平行。
(E) people与publication不能构成同位语关系；“书的人均出版量”概念上很荒谬；that指代per capita publication，than后面则是per capita publication in any other nation“他国的人均出版量”，概念上与“某国人的人均出版量”并不成对比，“他国的人均出版量”或许包括其他国家的人在该国的出版物（类似GDP与GNP区别）
1. 关于that指代per capita publication而不仅仅指代publication，一道相似的题目：
Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
(B) lower than that of
(C) and lower than that of
(D) which is lower than in（B）
(E) which is lower than it is in
解析：从比较对象，和简洁性考虑只有B正确，其中that指代的是annual per capita income。That是中心词指代，说明annual per capita都是属于中心词不可缺少的部分。
替代词one, ones, that, those在比较结构中的用法辨析—摘自专八翻译教程
在比较结构中，为了避免重复，常用替代词替代名词词组或它的中心词（noun phrase head）。可以这样用的替代词常用的且较难掌握的有one， ones，that和those。
My child doesn't like this book．Show her a more interesting one．
I don't like this book．I'd like a more interesting one．
Our new cassette is more expensive than the one we had before．
4. 当替代词one或ones在形容词比较级、最高级以及某些限定词如this，that， which和序数词等
This book is much better than that（one）．
5．替代词one或ones通常不用在物主代词和名词所有格之后。如不可说my one（s），your one（s）
Peter's one（s）等等。one或 ones也不能用在own之后。
My cheap camera seems to be just as good as John's expensive one．
6．one作替代词时，在of前面不能用 the one来表示所属关系和类似概念。如不可说：
＊He put down his gun and picked up the one of Henry．
该用一个所有格来表示 He picked up Henry's．
Don't praise the younger child in the presence of the elder．
A cake made of wheat costs less than one made of rice．（one ＝a cake）
Here are a few apples．Would you like some（＝some of them）？
2. 1.that和those通常用作指使代词，也可用作替代词。它们总是伴随着限定性的后置修饰语，分别等于the one
和 the ones。例如：
The houses of the rich are generally larger than those of the poor．
2.that也可替代不可数名词，但是 the one则不能。例如：
The resistance of a thicker wire is less than that of a thin one．
4.The blonde girl I saw was older than the one you were dancing with．
The song by Schubert is more tuneful than that by Britain．（that＝the song。song为可数名词。）
请注意，这里说的that只替代“the ＋单数名词”，不可替代“a ＋ 单数名词，系指that在句子中实际的作用，并非要求它在句子中所代表的前面出现的词组必须是“the ＋单数名词。例如：
In those days they lived a life worse than that of a beast of burden．
在该句中，前面出现的词组为a life，但that替代的却是the life。
The problem confronting us today is not dissimilar from that which the nation confronted in the 1930s．
Because of wireless service costs plummeting in the last year, and as mobile phones are increasingly common, many people now using their mobile phones to make calls across a wide region at night and on weekends, when numerous wireless companies provide unlimited airtime for a relatively small monthly fee.
A. Because of wireless service costs plummeting in the last year, and as mobile phones are increasingly common, many people
B. As the cost of wireless service plummeted in the last year and as mobile phones became increasingly common, many people
C. In the last year, with the cost of wireless service plummeting, and mobile phones have become increasingly common, there are many people
D. With the cost of wireless service plummeting in the last year and mobile phones becoming increasingly common, many people are
E. While the cost of wireless service has plummeted in the last year and mobile phones are increasingly common, many people are
题目释义： With …., many people are now using…..,when
(A) and前后的分句结构都不完整；because of和as不平行对称；because of后面核心词只有costs，无法表达出完整含义，awkward。
(B) 缺少主谓成分，句子结构不完整；in the last year通常与现在完成时搭配；未划线部分的provide用的是一般现在时，则as mobile phones became increasingly common中，became应该用一般现在时；两个as引导的原因状语从句并列
(C) and前后成分不平行；and后面句子run-on的错误；此处there be句型不及主谓结构更有效，wordy；in the last year提前，从仅修饰the cost of wireless service plummeted变为修饰整句话，造成逻辑错误
(D) Correct；with 可以表示原因，与 as 含义相似(见补充说明)；注意 become 和 increasingly 并不重复， increasingly 只是表达了 more and more 的含义，become与more常搭配使用
(E) while引导的从句要与主句发生在同一时间，可是wireless service has plummeted与主句不是同一时间发生的，用while错误，而且用as表示原因或伴随更为合适
1. with是有"因为"的意思：(the following explanations are from Longman dictionary)
释义: because of a situation that exists:
With John away there's more room in the house.
短语: with something doing something
I can't do my homework with all this noise going on.
2. 注意in last与in the last的区别：
e.g. : Did you see the game on TV last night? 昨天晚上
e.g. : Interest in golf has grown rapidly in the last ten years. 最近十年
再如大全242. Despite the recent election of a woman to the office of prime minister, the status of women in Pakistan is little changed from how it was in the last century.
(A) is little changed from how it was
(B) is a little change from how it was
(C) has changed little
(D) has changed little from how it has been
(E) is little changed from the way it was
Mauritius was a British colony for almost 200 years, excepting for the domains of administration and teaching, the English language was never really spoken on the island.
A. excepting for
B. except in
C. but except in
D. but excepting for
E. with the exception of
题目释义： Mauritius was a British colony…., but except in the domains…., the English language…..
Mauritius 主语，a British colony 宾语，but连接转折分句， except + in the domains 介词短语，修饰the English language was never really spoken on the island整个句子。
OG11 verbal review #13：Excepting usually appears in negative constructions;
excepting多用于否定意义的句子：The use of excepting is considered by many people to be acceptable only after not, only, always, or without.
Everyone helped, not excepting John
We must all obey the law, not [without] excepting the king.
Elsewhere except is preferred: Every country agreed to the proposal except (not excepting) Spain;
He was well again except for (not excepting) a slight pain in his chest.
(A) 缺少连词,一句话中出现两个独立的句子；for the domains错误。
(C) 正确。这里的in并不是与except连用，而是in the domains of. 意思是，排除这一领域….
(D) excepting常用于否定句中，excepting是动词ing的形式，那么逻辑主语是language, 逻辑错误。
(E) 缺少连词,一句话中出现两个独立的句子; with引导的从句有修饰前半句或者后半句的起义
关于 Except 的各种用法
1. except for: 用于非同类事物，它的宾语与前述对象完全是两回事。
例如： The room was very cold and, except for Jack, entirely empty.
例如：He gets up early every day except Sunday.
有时except与except for可以换用，例如： Except for(=except) John, the whole class passed the test. 全班同学除约翰外，全都通过了考试。
* ： 1.2. 在 GMAT 中不适用， GMAT 中并不讲究 except 与 except for 的区别，故删去。
3. except that表达的语意与except近似，只是后面要跟从句。
例： He has always been in good health except that he has had a slight headache in the past few days. 除了在过去几天里有些头痛之外，他身体一直很好。
4. but:常可与 except互换，强调"不在其中"。
例： Everyone attended the meeting but Mary.大家都出席了这次会议，但玛丽不在其列。
例： She can speak French and Japanese besides English.除英语外，她还会讲法语和日语。
6. apart from:其含义主要依据上下文而定，有时可与except换用，有时可代替besides.
例： Apart from the coat, the hat doesn't suit me.除价钱太贵，这帽子也不适合我戴。
13. Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged in 1911, Scott Joplin’s ragtime opera＂Tree monisha＂was not produced until 1972，sixty-one years after its completion．
(A) Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged
(B) Except for a concert performance with the composer himself staging it
(C) Besides a concert performance being staged by the composer himself
(D) Excepting a concert performance that the composer himself staged
(E) With the exception of a concert performance with the staging done by the composer himself
Idiom + Rhetorical construction
This sentence requires attention to idiom and to conciseness．Except for is correctly followed by a noun，concert performance；that the composer staged himself is a clause that dearly and concisely describes the performance．
A. In this sentence．the correct idiom is used in a clear and concise expression．
B. With…it is an ungrammatical construction；staging suggests ongoing action rather than action completed in 1911．
C. Being staged suggests ongoing rather than completed action；the passive voice is wordy and awkward．
D. Excepting usually appears in negative constructions；it is not the correct idiom in this sentence．
E. This sentence is awkward and wordy．
The correct answer is A ．
For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing an average of 2,275 gallons of milk each per year.
A. providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing
B. providing them with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces
C. provided with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing
D. provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces
E. provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, Holstein cows will produce
题目释义： For the farmer who … to keep them cool, provided and milked…., Holstein cows will produce…….
2） “will + 动词原型”除了表示将来时，还可以表示常常发生的事情。
(A) providing和milking的形式是在做伴随状语修饰keep，逻辑上错误；无理由使用are producing进行时态，native speakers of english will recognize "are producing" at once as awkward。
(B) providing与另外两个成分不平行；指代不一致,前面用的them，对应复数形式，所以不应该是the holstein cow；注意也不能说成the Holstein cows，因为是泛指牛，所以不应该加冠词。
(C) milking与另外两个成分不平行；“are producing”awkward。
(D) 指代不一致,前面用的them,对应复数形式，所以不应该是the holstein cow。
That twenty-one ceramic dog figurines were discovered during the excavating of a 1,000-year-old Hohokam village in Tempe, Arizona, has nearly doubled the number of these artifacts known to exist.
A. That twenty-one ceramic dog figurines were discovered during the excavating
B. Twenty-one ceramic dog figurines discovered at the excavation
C. Discovering twenty-one ceramic dog figurines at the excavating
D. Ceramic dog figurines, twenty-one of which were discovered during excavating
E. The discovery of twenty-one ceramic dog figurines during the excavation
题目释义： The discovery ….has doubled the number of…
(C) discoveringàdiscovery; excavatingàexcavation
49. The cameras of the Voyager II spacecraft detected six small, previously unseen moons circling Uranus, which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting the distant planet.
(A) which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting
(B) doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known to orbit
(C) which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known in orbit around
(D) doubling to twelve the number of satellites now known as orbiting
(E) which doubles to twelve the number of satellites now known that orbit
The pronoun which should be used to refer to a previously mentioned noun, not to the idea expressed in an entire clause. In A, C, and E, which seems to refer to a vague concept invol¬ving the detection of moons, but there is no specific noun, such as detection, to which it can refer. Also in E, the use of the phrasing the number... now known that orbit is ungrammatical and unclear. B and D use the correct participial form, doubling, to modify the preceding clause, but D, like A, uses known as orbiting rather than known to orbit, a phrase that is more idiomatic in context. B, therefore, is the best answer.
Dressed as a man and using the name Robert Shurtleff, Deborah Sampson, the first woman to draw a soldier's pension, joined the Continental Army in 1782 at the age of 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become too ill to serve.
A. 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become
B. 22, was injured three times, while being discharged in 1783 because she had become
C. 22 and was injured three times, and discharged in 1783, being
D. 22, injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she was
E. 22, having been injured three times and discharged in 1783, being
题目释义：Deborah Sampson…joined…, was injured …, and was discharged….because she had become ……
(A) Correct；需要找一个joined..., was injured..., and was discharged....的平行结构，只有此选项符合要求；使用过去完成时表明了she become too ill to serve 是发生在was discharged in 1783之前；she become too ill to serve 就是仅修饰最后半个句子，所以作者在这里特意用逗号把后半个句子和前面区分开为了避免歧义，because 状从修饰的只是最后的动作，所以放在最后。
(B) was discharged与was injured时间不是发生在同一时间，使用while时间状语错误，同时破坏句子平行结构； being使用多余，while being构成了被动语态的过去进行时态，这个动作应该是一个过去式动词。
(D) 动词并列，injured应该用被动，前要补出was才能与joined和was discharged并列；because she was中用了一般过去时也是可以的。
(E) 用了having been injured…and discharged做前面主句的伴随状语，表明be injured and discharged发生在joined之前，逻辑错误；and前面没有逗号隔开使得in 1783的修饰对象改变，原文是在1783年退役，现在是被伤了3次及退役都发生在1783，同时being修饰的对象把be injured也包括了进去。
Parallelism; Logical predication
This sentence introduces Deborah Sampson with a description of Sampson when she first enlisted, and goes on to describe her career in the Continental Army. The information about her historical significance interrupts the chronological flow of the sentence and must therefore be set off with commas. The sequence of events that marks her career must be presented as a parallel series of items.
A. Correct. The phrase that describes Deborah Sampson as the first woman to draw a soldier’s pension intervenes between the subject and predicate of the main verb and thus is appropriately set off with commas; the three verbs in the main clause are in parallel form.
B. While being … indicates that Sampson was injured at the same time she was discharged from the Army.
C. Discharged should be in passive voice—was discharged—because Sampson did not do this herself.
D. Injured needs to be in passive voice.
E. having been injured … indicates that all Sampson’s injuries as well as her discharge occurred in 1783.
When working with overseas clients, an understanding of cultural norms is at least as important as grasping the pivotal business issues for the global manager.
A. When working with overseas clients, an understanding of cultural norms is at least as important as grasping the pivotal business issues for the global manager.
B. When they work with overseas clients, understanding cultural norms is at least of equal importance to the global manager as grasping the pivotal business issues.
C. For global managers working with overseas clients, understanding cultural norms is at least as important as grasping the pivotal business issues.
D. For global managers working with overseas clients, an understanding of cultural norms is at least as important to them as that they grasp the pivotal business issues.
E. Global managers working with overseas clients find an understanding of cultural norms to be equally important as grasping the pivotal business issues.
题目释义： For managers …, understanding … is at least as… as grasping …...
表示时间 / 条件 / 转折 / 让步的连词(when/while/if/unless/although/even though/even if) + 形容词短语 /-ing 短语 /-ed 短语
(逻辑主语等于句子主语) (所以when a child/ when children是错的； if + n.也是错的)
b) 错误形式:表示时间/条件/转折的连词 + 介词短语/名词短语 (although just inside the orbit of Jupiter是错的)(OG10-69)
c) 特殊情况:once可以加介词短语/名词短语; whatever可以加名词短语
(A) when working的逻辑主语是主句主语an understanding，错误；understanding做名词意为“理解”，不同于做动名词时的“了解”，用名词的含义不符合语境；at least as...as比较结构前后对象不对等，前面是an understanding名词，后面是grasping现在分词。
(B) when working的逻辑主语是主句主语an understanding，逻辑不匹配；they无明确指代对象，逻辑上指代manager，但是manager是单数；as...as比较结构中at least后面缺少as；
(C) Correct；understanding和grasping完美对称，at least as ... as结构完整
(D) to them冗余，与句首的for global managers重复；understanding做名词意为“理解”，不同于做动名词时的“了解”，用名词的含义不符合语境，且an understanding与后面的that从句形式上不平行，that从句也过于复杂
(E) equally important as不符合习惯；as ... as结构不完整；find引导的句子过于繁琐；understanding做名词意为“理解”，不同于做动名词时的“了解”，用名词的含义不符合语境；at least as...as比较结构前后对象不对等，前面是an understanding名词，后面是grasping动名词。