# GMAT 考满分题库

GWD - - 291

A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a "hard-sell" or "soft-sell" strategy is appropriate for a specific target market. The hard-sell approach involves the use of direct, forceful claims regarding the benefits of the advertised brand over competitors offerings. In contrast, the soft-sell approach involves the use of advertising claims that imply superiority more subtly.One positive aspect of the hard-sell approach is its use of very simple and straightforward product claims presented as explicit conclusions, with little room for confusion regarding the advertisers message. However, some consumers may resent being told what to believe and some may distrust the message. Resentment and distrust often lead to counterargumentation and to boomerang effects where consumers come to believe conclusions diametrically opposed to conclusions endorsed in advertising claims. By contrast, the risk of boomerang effects is greatly reduced with soft-sell approaches. One way to implement the soft-sell approach is to provide information that implies the main conclusions the advertiser wants the consumer to draw, but leave the conclusions themselves unstated. Because consumers are invited to make up their own minds, implicit conclusions reduce the risk of resentment, distrust, and counterargumentation. Recent research on consumer memory and judgment suggests another advantage of implicit conclusions. Beliefs or conclusions that are self generated are more accessible from memory than beliefs from conclusions provided explicitly by other individuals, and thus have a greater impact on judgment and decision making. Moreover, self-generated beliefs are often perceived as more accurate and valid than the beliefs of others, because other individuals may be perceived as less knowledgeable, or may be perceived as manipulative or deliberately misleading.Despite these advantages, implicit conclusions may not always be more effective than explicit conclusions. One risk is that some consumers may fail to draw their own conclusions and thus miss the point of the message. Inferential activity is likely only when consumers are motivated and able to engage in effortful cognitive processes. Another risk is that some consumers may draw conclusions other than the one intended. Even if inferential activity is likely there is no guarantee that consumers will follow the path provided by the advertiser. Finally, a third risk is that consumers may infer the intended conclusion but question the validity of their inference.

It can be inferred from the passage that advertisers could reduce one of the risks discussed in the last paragraph if they were able to provide

• Amotivation for consumers to think about the advertisements message
• Binformation that implies the advertisers intended conclusion but leaves that conclusion unstated
• Csubtle evidence that the advertised product is superior to that of competitors
• Dinformation comparing the advertised product with its competitors
• Eopportunity for consumers to generate their own beliefs or conclusions

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