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694 Only a reduction of 10 percent in the number of scheduled flights using Greentown's airport will allow the delays that are so common there to be avoided. Hevelia airstrip, 40 miles away, would, if upgraded and expanded, be an attractive alternative for fully 20 percent of the passengers using Greentown airport. Nevertheless, experts reject the claim that turning Hevelia into a full-service airport would end the chronic delays at Greentown.Which of the following, if true, most helps to justify experts' position?
695 Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops-rice, wheat, and corn-account for most human caloric intake. To maintain this level of caloric intake and also keep pace with global population growth, yields per acre from each of these crops will have to increase at least 1.5 percent every year, given that the supply of cultivated land is diminishing. Therefore, the government should increase funding for research into new ways to improve yields Which of the following is an assumption on which the farmers argument depends?
696 The air quality board recently informed Coffee Roast, a small coffee roasting firm, of a complaint regarding the smoke from its roaster. Recently enacted air quality regulations requires machine roasting more than 10 pounds of coffee to be equipped with expensive smoke-dissipating afterburners. The firm, however, roasts only 8 pounds of coffee at a time. Nevertheless, the company has decided to purchase and install an afterburner.Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the firm`s decision?
697 People who do regular volunteer work tend to live longer, on average, than people who do not. It has been found that "doing good," a category that certainly includes volunteer work, releases endorphins, the brain`s natural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. Clearly, there is a connection: Regular releases of endorphins must in some way help to extend people`s lives.Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the force of the evidence given as support for the hypothesis that endorphins promote longevity?
698 A study compared a sample of Swedish people older than 75 who needed in-home assistance with a similar sample of Israel people. The people in the two samples received both informal assistance, provided by family and friends, and formal assistance, professionally provided. Although Sweden and Israel have equally well-funded and comprehensive systems for providing formal assistance, the study found that the people in the Swedish sample received more formal assistance, on average, than those in the Israeli sample. Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the difference that the study?
699 Film Director: It is true that certain characters and plot twists in my newly released film The Big Heist are similar to characters and plot twists in Thieves, a movie that came out last year. Pointing to these similarities, the film studio that produced Thieves is now accusing me of taking ideas from that film. The accusation is clearly without merit. All production work on The Big Heist was actually completed months before Thieves was released. Which of the following, if true, provides the strongest support for the directors position?
700 In Mernia commercial fossil hunters often sell important fossils they have found, not to universities or museums, but to individual collectors, who pay much better but generally do not allow researchers access to their collections. To increase the number of fossils available for research, some legislators propose requiring all fossils that are found in Mernia to be sold only to universities or museums.Which of the following, if true, most strongly indicates that the legislators' proposal will fail to achieve its goal?
701 Economist: Tropicorp, which constantly seeks profitable investment opportunities, has been buying and clearing sections of tropical forest for cattle ranching, although pastures newly created there become useless for grazing after just a few years. The company has not gone into rubber tapping, even though greater profits can be made from rubber tapping, which leaves the forest intact. Thus, some environmentalists argue that Tropicorp`s actions do not serve even its own economic interest. However, the initial investment required for a successful rubber-tapping operation is larger than that needed for a cattle ranch; there is a shortage of workers employable in rubber-tapping operations;and taxes are higher on profits from rubber tapping than on profits from cattle ranching.  Consequently, the environmentalists` conclusion is probably wrong. In the economist`s argument, the two boldface portions play which of the following roles?
702 Brown tides are growths of algae on the sea's surface that prevent sunlight from reaching marine plants below, thereby destroying not only the plants but also the shellfish that live off these plants. Biologists recently isolated a virus that, when added to seawater, kills the algae that cause brown tides. Adding large quantities of this virus to waters affected by brown tides will therefore make it possible to save the populations of shellfish that inhabit those waters. Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the conclusion of the argument?
703 In persons with astigmatism, the clear outer layer of the eye is deformed in a way that impairs and sometimes distorts vision. The elongated figures in the paintings of El Greco (1541-1614) were so unusual that some critics sought to explain them by hypothesizing that without knowing it, El Greco had an astigmatism that caused everything to appear to him in the distorted way that was characteristic of his painted figures. The proposed explanation is most vulnerable to the criticism that it fails to
704 Marketing executive for Magu Corporation: Whenever Magu opens a manufacturing facility in a new city, the company should sponsor, or make donations to, a number of nonprofit organizations in that city. Doing so would improve Magu's image in the community, and thus the money spent on such charitable ventures would lead to increased sales. Which statement would, if true, point to the most serious weakness in the marketing executive's advice?
705 In the last few years, plant scientists have been able to genetically engineer seeds to produce crops highly resistant to insect damage. Farmers growing crops with these seeds will be able to spend significantly less on pesticides. This cost reduction would more than make up for the higher cost of the genetically engineered seeds. Clearly, therefore, farmers who grow crops from genetically engineered seeds will be able to reduce their costs by using them. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?
706 Educational Theorist: Recent editorials have called for limits on the amount of homework assigned to schoolchildren younger than 12. They point out that free-time activities play an important role in childhood development and that homework in large quantities can severely restrict children's free time, hindering their development. But the actual average homework time for children under 12-little more than 30 minutes per night-leaves plenty of free time. In reality, therefore, the editorials' rationale cannot justify the restriction they advocate. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously call into question the educational theorist's conclusion?
707 Airline Representative: The percentage of flight delays caused by airline error decreased significantly this year. This indicates that airlines listened to complaints about preventable errors and addressed the problems. Although delays caused by weather and other uncontrollable factors will always be part of travel, preventable delays are clearly decreasing. Which of the following most clearly points to a logical flaw in the representative 's reasoning?
708 Although the school would receive financial benefits if it had soft drink vending machines in the cafeteria, we should not allow them. Allowing soft drink machines there would not be in our students` interest. If our students start drinking more soft drinks, they will be less healthy.The argument depends on which of the following?
709 Many athletes inhale pure oxygen after exercise in an attempt to increase muscular reabsorption of oxygen. Measured continuously after exercise, however, the blood lactate levels of athletes who inhale pure oxygen are practically identical, on average, to those of athletes who breathe normal air. The lower the blood lactate level is, the higher the muscular reabsorption of oxygen is.If the statements above are all true, they most strongly support which of the following conclusions?
710 Historian: Fifteenth-century advances in mapmaking contributed to the rise of modern nation-states. In medieval Europe (from the fifth to the fifteenth century), sovereignty centered in cities and towns and radiated outward, with boundaries often ambiguously defined. The conceptual shift toward the modern state began in the late fifteenth century, when mapmakers learned to reflect geography accurately by basing maps on latitude-longitude grids. By the midseventeenth century, nearly all maps showed boundary lines. Which of the following would, if true, most strengthen the historian's reasoning?
711 Sascha: The attempt to ban parliament's right to pass directed-spending bills-bills that contain provisions specifically funding the favorite projects of some powerful politicians-is antidemocratic. Our nation's constitution requires that money be drawn from our treasury only when so stipulated by laws passed by parliament, the branch of government most directly representative of the citizens. This requirement is based on the belief that exercising the power to spend public resources involves the ultimate exercise of state authority and that therefore _________. Which of the following most logically completes Sascha's argument?
712 Boreal owls range over a much larger area than do other owls of similar size. Scientists have hypothesized that it is scarcity of prey that leads the owls to range so widely. This hypothesis would be hard to confirm directly, since it is not possible to produce a sufficiently accurate count of the populations of small mammals inhabiting the forests where boreal owls live. Careful study of owl behavior has, however, shown that boreal owls do range over larger areas when they live in regions where food of the sort eaten by small mammals is comparatively sparse. This indicates that the scientists` hypothesis is not sheer speculation. In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?
713 Cognitive scientist: Using the pioneering work of comparative psychologist Gordon Gallup as a model, several studies have investigated animals' capacityfor mirror self-recognition (MSR). Most animals exposed to a mirror respond only with social behavior, such as aggression. However, in the case of the great apes, repeated exposure to mirrors leads to self-directed behaviors, such as exploring the inside of the mouth, suggesting that these animals recognize thereflection as an image of self. The implication of these studies is that the great apes have a capacity for self-awareness unique among nonhuman species. The cognitive scientist makes which of the following assumptions in the argument above?

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